Tuesday 1 August 2023

Bourbon's Rebellion; Neufchateau,1523, and the Siege of Marseille, 1524

A couple of weekends ago Stuart visited for two days of gaming. Having really enjoyed our last games which covered Suffolk's 1523 invasion of France, http://camisado1500s.blogspot.com/2023/05/entendyn-to-bryng-gunnepouder-and-other.html we thought it would be fun to follow those games up with a scenario focusing on the force Suffolk was supposed to meet up with, which Suffolk had presumed would be under the leadership of the Duke of Bourbon, and another scenario which covered one of Bourbon's campaigns the following year, the Siege of Marseille. The siege of Marseille game also gave us a great excuse to get the new warship on the table, http://camisado1500s.blogspot.com/2023/07/an-early-16th-century-warship.html. Whilst I am well aware it would have been galleys that would've supported the attack covered in the Marseille game the Genoese did also use carracks and it was fun to see it on the table as the fighting raged amidst the Imperial siege works!

With regard to the first scenario, Guise's attack on the landsknecht raised by Bourbon, I had to rely heavily on Martin du Bellay's memoires as information on this encounter is pretty scarce. I found a few modern accounts where it was put in a different year! As such I am unsure of the numbers and exact date of the clash although that is not unusual for many 16th century battles and skirmishes. 

William von Furstenburg and Felix von Werdenberg's column of landsknecht crossing the river Meuse.

The landsknecht column from the rear. The mercenaries are accompanied by carts and wagons full of plunder and loot.

Neufchateau, 1523

When the Duke of Suffolk led an Anglo-Imperial army of around 12,000 men into France in 1523 it was part of a grand plot hatched between the English King, Henry VIII,  the Habsburg Emperor, Charles V, and the French magnate, Charles Duke of Bourbon. Bourbon had been made Constable of France in 1515. In 1521 war broke out in the Netherlands between the Imperialist Habsburgs and the French. Bourbon was deeply affronted when the French King, Francis I, in front of the entire army appointed Charles, Duke of Alencon, as commander of the French vanguard, a position normally held by the Constable. In the same year Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon,  had died leaving her estates to her husband, only for the inheritance to be contested by the French King's mother, Louise of Savoy. As a resolution to the lawsuit Francis proposed the duke should marry Louise of Savoy, a proposal Bourbon would not accept. Francis I confiscated some of Bourbon's estates and the proud magnate secretly offered his service and loyalty to his King's great rival, Charles V. 

In early 1523 Bourbon's conspiracy was discovered and the duke fled to Imperial territory. With the English under Suffolk in Northern France and an Imperialist invasion being launched from Spain into Southern France Bourbon had intended to raise an army and attack France from the east. Whilst Bourbon would raise the men at arms for the campaign, a force of landsknecht would provide the infantry. By September 1523 the landsknecht had mustered under the commanders Felix von Werdenberg and William von Furstenburg. Taking money from the city of Strasbourg to cover their as yet unreceived wages they headed into France in an attempt to link up with the Anglo-Imperial army. At Langres Bourbon sent the landsknecht some of his own hastily gathered funds whilst English gold was received in the nick of time, temporarily quelling discontent amongst the mercenary troops.

Still attempting to raise the cavalry Bourbon entered into negotiations with Antoine de Lorraine, who was married to Bourbon's sister Renee, in an effort to secure the safe passage of his troops through Antoine's territory should it be required. Preoccupied by these efforts the duke did not assume command of the landsknecht. As they marched along the banks of the Marne in the direction of Paris the German mercenaries were harassed by a large cavalry force that had been raised by Claude de Guise. The French horse prevented the landsknecht from foraging whilst the changing weather and lack of pay sapped the morale of Furstenburg and Werdenberg's men. As they descended into France, despite Bourbons wishes, the landsknecht plundered and looted towns they passed which led to further indiscipline and meant the column of troops was laden with wagons of plunder.
Seeing their troops were more preoccupied with protecting their loot the German captains were unwilling to face Guise and his cavalry. They attempted to retreat by crossing the Meuse into Lorraine where they hoped Bourbon had secured them safe passage. They could then head into Flanders and descend on Paris from the north. Unfortunately for the landsknecht Claude de Guise had predicted this escape attempt and laid a trap for them at Neufchateau. In his memoires, penned some years after the event, Martin du Bellay describes how the Duke of Guise, being aware of the landsknecht retreat despatched two or three hundred men at arms to cross the Meuse and head them off. He would then attack them from the rear as they crossed the river. The captain of the men at arms ordered to cross the river, the Lord of Gourville, quarelled with Lord Chastelet of Lorraine, Guise's standard bearer. Chastelet stabbed Gourville in the mouth. Being unaware of this infighting and thinking that the men he had ordered across were already in position Guise attacked the rear of the landsknecht column and cut them to pieces recovering much of the plunder. Those landsknecht already across the river escaped as the men sent to stop them were delayed by Gourville and Chastelet's violent quarrel.

Guise's wife, Antoinette de Bourbon, and Bourbon's sister, Renee, the duchess of Lorraine, watched the fighting from the walls of the town. Due to the ill discipline of Guise's captains many of Furstenburg's landsknecht did escape into Lorraine. Those mercenaries who had managed to hang onto their loot returned home, whilst others headed to find employment in Italy. Bourbon had intended to march into France with an army to meet the Duke of Suffolk. Instead, following Guise's attack at Neufchateau, his army had melted away.

Guise's wife, Antoinette de Bourbon, and Bourbon's sister, Renee, the duchess of Lorraine, watch the action from the walls of Neufchateau.

Camp followers accompany the landsknecht as they march into Lorraine.

A view of the wagons and camp followers.

Many of the landsknecht are preoccupied with getting their loot home.


As the photos show the battlefield was set up to with the river Meuse running close to the walls of Neufchateau (with Antoinette de Bourbon, and Renee, the duchess of Lorraine looking on). The river could only be crossed at the bridge.


The landsknecht had to be deployed in a column with wagons. The landsknecht player could place troops on the bridge but no further across the river than that.

None of Guise's forces started on the table. The landsknecht would take the first turn and then from turn one Guise's forces could arrive via move activations. Guise's units could not charge, shoot or skirmish on the first turn of arrival. Most of Guise's force would arrive behind the landsknecht column whilst Gourville and Chastelet's force would arrive in front of the column, see below.


The landsknecht objective was simple - they had to try and get as many troops as possible over the bridge and off the table. To represent the plunder they also had three large wagons which each had to be assigned to a unit.  The wagons could move a maximum of 6" per turn and units would loose the wagon if they were defeated in combat or battered. Units with a wagon could not attack whilst still holding the wagon but could shoot whilst they had control of a wagon. Other landsknecht units could pick up "lost" wagons by moving into base to base contact with them. The new unit was then considered to have picked it up and could move with the wagon. All the smaller carts and the livestock in the photos were included for affect and had no bearing on the game.

Gourville and Chastelet and the force sent to cross the river

The historical attack by Guise was effective but, according to du Bellay, the ill discipline of the men sent across the Meuse to head off the landsknecht meant the attack did not go entirely to plan and some of the landsknecht escaped. To represent this in our scenario part of Guise's force had crossed the river but was still part of the main retinue. Gourville and Chastelet's Gendarme units and accompanying lancers would deploy from the other side of the river in front of the marching landsknecht column.

If Gourville and Chastelet's Gendarme units were within charge range of each other these two units had to test to wild charge one another. They did this before attacking any landsknecht units if the other gendarme unit was an option. This was to represent the bloody quarrel between them!

Victory Points

Victory in this scenario was based on victory points.

The landsknecht would get:
2 points for every unit that left the table edge the column was heading towards.
An additional 2 points if William von Furstenburg left the table from the correct table edge.
An additional 2 points if Felix von Werdenberg left the table from the correct table edge.
5 points for every wagon that left the table from the correct table edge.
3 points if Claude de Guise was killed or routed.

The French would get:
1 point for every landsknecht unit that was killed or routed and an additional plus 1 point if Felix von Werdenberg's unit did not escape.
3 points for every wagon that did not escape.
2 points if  William von Furstenburg was killed or routed.

A band of marching landsknecht arquebusiers.

The landsknecht have seized livestock on their incursion into France which they are now herding as the column slowly marches on.

Von Furstenburg and Von Werdenberg's troops begin to cross the Meuse.

The Armies

Claude de Guise and the French cavalry

Force Arriving from behind the landsknecht:

1 Unit of Gendarmes (Claude de Guise retinue leader) 
1 Unit of Gendarmes
2 Units of Men at Arms
2 Units of Ordonnance Archers with lances
1 Unit of Ordonnance Archers with bows
2 Units of Mounted Crossbowmen

Force already across the Meuse arriving in front of the landsknecht:

1 Unit of Gendarmes (Lord of Gourville)
1 Unit of Gendarmes (Lord Chastelet of Lorraine) 
2 Units of Ordonnance Archers with lances

William von Furstenburg and the landsknecht

1 Unit of Foot Knights (William von Furstenburg retinue leader)
1 Unit of Foot Knights (Felix von Werdenberg and his men)
5 Units of Landsknecht Pike 
4 Units of Landsknecht Arquebusiers 
2 Units of Landsknecht Halberdiers

As always the games were played using our modified Renaissance Rampant rules. For this game Stuart chose to play as the French so I took command of the landsknecht. A brief summary of what turned out to be a fairly brief game follows but the captions under the pictures are also a good way to follow the action.

As the landsknecht begin to the cross the river, Lord Chastelet of Lorraine arrives with his gendarmes and lancers. He is Guise's standard bearer, and one of the captains Guise ordered to cross the river ahead of the landsknecht.

Lord Chastelet's lancers prepare to charge the landsknecht column...

...and charge into a unit of landsknecht arquebusiers.

Lord Chastelet of Lorraine is distracted from his mission when he spots the Lord of Gourville, a fellow noble who he has been quarrelling with.

Chastelet and Gourville charge each other...

...and in the ensuing fight Chastelet is severely wounded. His men leave the field.

As William von Furstenburg led his men over the bridge and across the Meuse they were alarmed to see a small force of French gendarmes and lancers already on the other side of the river. As ordered by his commander Lord Chastelet of Lorraine had crossed the river with some of his men in order to lay in wait for the retreating Furstenburg and his landsknecht. As the landsknecht crossed the bridge Chastelet's cavalry charged into them, driving some of the infantry back.

Guise had also ordered another captain to cross the river, the Lord of Gourville. Gourville and Chastelet had quarelled previously leading Chastelet to stab Gourville in the mouth! With this bad blood between them the two gendarme captains temporarily ignored their fight with the landsknecht and fell to blows with one another. Gourville drove Chastelet and his men from the field which left Gourville to face the oncoming landsknecht column alone. Supported by his lancers he managed to drive off some of the landsknecht arquebusiers and push some of their pikemen back. As more landsknecht arrived over the bridge Furstenburg's forces were able to reform and fight off Gourville and his men. This left the escape route for the landsknecht open.

Lord Gourville's lancers crash into some of the landsknecht pike and push them back.

Lord Gourville and his gendarmes ride down a group of landsknecht arquebusiers.

A view along the column, The French gendarmes are at the head of the bridge.

There is panic in the landsknecht ranks as it looks like they may be unable to escape and fall victim to the marauding French cavalry.

In the fighting at the foot of the bridge Lord Gourville and his men are being pushed back in a determined counterattack by the landsknecht pike.

On the other side of the river to the rear of the landsknecht column Claude de Guise's main cavalry force begins to arrive. The lancers, mounted archers and mounted crossbowmen arrive first with the heavier cavalry still behind them.

On the other side of the river the lighter troops from Claude de Guise's cavalry force rode forward in an attempt to stop the landsknecht from escaping. A rearguard of landsknecht arquebusiers fought off some of the oncoming cavalry but were soon ridden down. The French horse were not quick to pursue the rest of the landsknecht column with Guise and the heavy cavalry slow to arrive. As the lighter horse, the lancers, mounted archers and mounted crossbowmen, awaited their commander with his gendarmes and men at arms the landsknecht managed to get all of their wagons across the bridge.

Antoinette de Bourbon, and Renee, the duchess of Lorraine, watched on from the walls of Neufchateau as Furstenburg and his men made good their escape. The early attack by Chastelet and Gourville followed by the quarrel between the two captains meant that the landsknecht could safely cross the river. Some of Guise's mounted crossbowmen harassed the landsknecht column as they rode alongside only to be caught out when a group of halberdiers broke from the column and dispersed the crossbowmen with a violent charge. Guise's ambush had been mistimed and the landsknecht escaped.

A unit of French mounted archers arrives.

A unit of landsknecht arquebusiers form a rearguard. They manage to see off one unit of Guise's lancers but are then ridden down by a second.

Guise has arrived too late...

...the main landsknecht force and their valuable wagons full of loot have crossed the river.

A unit of landsknecht halberdiers pushes back some of the mounted crossbowmen who get too close to the column. Chastelet and Gourville's ill discipline has meant that the escape rout for Von Furstenburg and Von Werdenberg's men is clear. Claude de Guise has not even arrived on the field and landsknecht have already escaped!

The Siege of Marseille, 1524

Following his failed invasion of France described above, Bourbon headed to Italy reaching Genoa on 20 December 1523. In the wake of the illness and death of Prospero Colonna he was appointed to the position of an Imperial General. In this role he aided the forces of Charles de Lannoy and Fernando d'Ávalos, the Marquis of Pescara, when they drove the French, under Guillaume Gouffier, seigneur de Bonnivet, out of Italy in the Spring of 1524. This left the Imperialists in a position to strike at France itself and Bourbon and Pescara were given command of a force of around 11,000 men, comprised of landsknecht, Italian and Spanish infantry with 700 light horse. Setting out on 24 June the army spent July moving through Provence with towns and cities surrendering as they advanced. The French defence was centred on Marseille where Renzo da Ceri commanded the former garrison of Lodi, who had retreated from Italy, numbering 4,000 men and was reinforced by Chabot de Brion with 300 men at arms.  On August 9 Bourbon made a ceremonial entry into the surrendered French city of Aix-en-Provence, but the Spanish captains in the army persuaded Bourbon to halt his advance. They argued leaving Marseille in French hands would pose a dangerous threat to their rear as they advanced further, whilst taking the city would also allow for the possibility of supply and reinforcement from the sea.

Bourbon and Pescara arrived outside Marseille on 14 August 1524. Renzo da Ceri had reinforced the walls with earthen ramparts and deep ditches. The buildings outside the city walls had been levelled, denying any cover or shelter to the attackers. In addition to the Lodi garrison and Chabot de Brion's men at arms da Ceri had also recruited a large city militia of perhaps as many as 6,000 men. The French defence was was aided by the French fleet, under the veteran Genoese Admiral Andrea Doria. Doria's fleet had already fought off the Spanish fleet that was supporting the invasion under Hugo de Moncada on July 8. It was now based on the nearby Island of Pomègues from where it could continue to supply and reinforce the besieged city.

Whilst the Imperialist rearguard had been left to hold Aix-en Provence, the rest of the army arrived at Marseille on 19 August. The landsknecht camped very close to the sea to the north west of Marseille, the Spanish made camp to the south east whilst the smaller contingent of Italians were positioned in between them. From the start of the siege Andrea Doria and his fleet threatened the camp. The English diplomat Richard Pace, accompanying the Imperial Army, wrote how on the morning following the arrival of the army on the 19th  200 to 300 men, were landed in an attempt to surprise the landsknecht camp. They killed one of Bourbon's gentlemen, named Richmond, but were pushed back when the Spanish counter attacked with many being taken prisoner, including a Neopolitan Baron. Bourbon had to divert some guns from their positions bombarding the walls to a nearby hill facing the sea in order to deter further attacks. 

On the 23 August an assault was launched on a breach in the walls but the Imperialists were unable to push through the hail of shot unleashed by the defenders. Following this Bourbon and Pescara's engineers attempted to undermine the French defences but da Ceri countered them with his own engineering efforts. Capturing powder and guns from Toulon the Imperialists made further attempts to reduce Marseille's defences but when another attempt to storm a breach failed dismally on 21 September Bourbon and Pescara could see there was no way to bring a swift end to the siege. Doria's fleet still controlled the harbour and they did not have enough guns to destroy Marseille's fortifications and silence the French guns that were keeping them at bay. 

By now the French King, Francis I, had joined with Bonnivet in Lyons, reinforcing what remained of the French army that had retreated from Italy earlier that year. Though Bourbon was keen to march towards the French King and meet him in battle, Pescara and his Spanish and Italian captains argued returning to Italy to defend the Italian possessions of Charles V was of more importance than any personal gains in France for the Duke of Bourbon. Without his own personal troops Bourbon was unable to sway the other commanders and on 27 September the Imperial army broke camp and headed back to Italy. Within months Bourbon would get his battle with the French King, amidst the siege works of Pavia in February the following year.

20 August 1524 and the landsknecht have begun setting up their siege guns at the walls of Marseille.

As they move the guns into position mantlets and gabions are used to protect the gunners from the guns of the defenders.

Charged with the defence of Marseille, Renzo da Ceri has surrounded the city with earthworks and gun bastions. From these positions the French can fire on the attacking Imperialists.


For this game we decided it would be fun to attempt a refight of the attack by the troops landed by Andrea Doria on 20 August. The table was set up with the walls of Marseille and the earthworks of the siege at one table edge with the landsknecht camp in front of it. The coastal boards denoted the Mediterranean sea from where Doria would land the attack.

The aim of the Genoese and French troops being landed was to destroy as many landsknecht gun positions as possible.


The game started with the landsknecht deployed on the table just in front of their camp. The troops landing from the Genoese fleet were deployed within 6" of the waters edge.  The Genoese and French force took the first turn. See the second photo below for the troop and gun battery positions.

The Spanish

The Spanish reinforcements would arrive from the other side of the table to the coast. The Imperialist player could start to roll for their arrival from turn 5. On the first roll (at the start of turn 5) a 10+ on 2D6 would herald the arrival of the Spanish. The following turn a 9+ would mean they could arrive and the following turn an 8+ and so on. The Spanish reinforcements would deploy via move activations. They could only enter the table via a move activation and could not shoot, attack or skirmish when first arriving.

The gun positions

The landsknecht had 3 gun positions that the Genoese/French were attempting to destroy.

To destroy a gun position, a Genoese/French unit had to move into base to base contact with it. To achieve the victory points the French player had to have at least one base from a unit in contact with the earthworks of the gun position at the start of their activation phase. As an ordered activation, they could then use that unit to destroy the position (instead of moving, attacking, or shooting). If there were 7 or more models in the unit the position was destroyed on a roll of 8+ on 2D6; if there were 6 or fewer models in the unit then the position was destroyed on a roll of 9+ on 2D6.

The Carrack

To represent any galleys or carracks the Genoese had at sea every turn the French player got an automatic shot at medium range from the shore. This happened at the beginning of the French players turn so was the first thing to happen in the game. There was no need to roll to activate the shot. This meant that every turn the French player got to roll 8 dice hitting on 5+ at any Imperial unit up to 24" from the shore. A misfire (rolling five 1's on the 8 dice) would mean the fleet could no longer shoot.


Victory in the game was based on victory points but the game would end as soon as all of the Spanish reinforcements deployed on the table. At this point the landing force was assumed to have fled back to the boats as the Imperial army had been made aware of the attack.

The Imperialists would get:
3 points for every gun position not destroyed.
3 points if they killed or routed the Naples Baron.

The French would get:

3 points for every gun position destroyed.
5 points if the killed or routed Bourbon.
2 points if they killed or routed "Richmond".

In an attempt to disrupt the establishment of the gun batteries the veteran Genoese Admiral Andrea Doria, lands some 200 to 300 men.

A view of the battlefield. In the lower middle of the photo are the landsknecht gun batteries. The upper middle of the photo shows the Duke of Bourbon and his landsknecht. Top right is the landsknecht camp and top left are the French and Genoese troops landed by Doria. The Spanish will arrive from the table edge on the right hand side.

The Armies

Charles, Duke of Bourbon, and the Imperialists

Deployed in the landsknecht camp:

1 Unit of Foot Knights - (Charles, Duke of Bourbon, retinue leader)
1 Unit of Foot Knights - (Bourbon's gentleman Richmond and his men)
2 Units of Landsknecht Pike
1 Unit of Landsknecht Arquebusiers
1 Culverin
1 Unit of Landsknecht Halberdiers

Spanish Reinforcements that deploy later:

2 Units of Spanish Arquebusiers
2 Units of Rodeleros
1 Unit of Spanish Pike

The Genoese and French Marines

1 Unit of Foot Knights - (The Neopolitan Baron and retinue leader)
1 Unit of Foot Knights
2 Units of Italian Arquebusiers
2 Units of Italian Infantry
2 Units of Italian Crossbowmen
2 Units of Halberdiers
1 Unit of Italian Pike

Following the first game Stuart decided to stick with the French so I took command of Bourbon and his troops. A brief summary of the action follows and the photo captions give an idea of what went on.

A Genoese carrack floats menacingly offshore as infantry deploy from the French and Genoese fleet.

As the French and Genoese disembark the landsknecht scramble in their camp to prepare for battle.

The Genoese carrack provides artillery support for the surprise attack.

The Doria arms and Genoese cross of St George can be seen flying above the attacking troops.

A view of the guns and earthworks defending Marseille. It will take a while for the Imperialists to break through all of the defences.

The Duke of Bourbon and his officers quickly attempt to organise themselves as the naval attack is launched.

Savage fighting breaks out on the beaches outside Marseille as the Imperialist landsknecht clash with the troops landed by Doria.

The landsknecht are driven back as more and more troops disembark from the row boats.

As the Genoese and French troops came ashore they sent a hail of arquebus shot and crossbow bolts into Bourbon's panicked landsknecht. The galleys and carracks sailing close to the shore fired into the camp causing further deaths amongst the German mercenaries. Bourbon rallied his men and the landsknecht pike blocks charged into the French and Genoese attempting to drive them back into the Mediterranean. Whilst casualties were suffered on both sides it was not long before the landed French and Genoese troops prevailed and the landsknecht pike broke.

The landsknecht halberdiers and arquebusiers also attempted to halt the attack. A culverin, yet to be placed in the gun batteries against the walls, was brought into play by Bourbon but it could not match the fire power of the guns of the French fleet. With his forces rapidly melting away it looked as though Bourbon was going to have to enter the fray himself in order to defend the siege guns.

Genoese and French troops pour into the landsknecht camp.

A view of the battle as Bourbon's landsknecht are caught off guard and pushed back.

In the top of the photo Bourbon and his landsknecht are being pushed back to their own gun battery. They are caught between the attackers and the imposing defences of the city. Marseille's walls are defended by a ditch and substantial earthworks. French gun batteries provide effective counterfire against the attacking guns.

A view of the battle from above. Bourbon and his landsknecht pike blocks are being driven back.

A view of some of the French gunners on the walls of Marseille.

The battle is in full swing.

The landsknecht are putting up a valiant defence...

...but are being overwhelmed and driven back.

Bourbon's landsknecht pike blocks break leaving himself and the gun positions dangerously exposed to the attacking French and Genoese.

The artillerymen manning the guns begin to realise they are in peril.

Landsknecht arquebusiers and halberdiers flee as the disembarked troops bear down on them.

As the rest of the landsknecht broke the troops from the French and Genoese fleet surged forward. They had reached the first of the gun positions and were going to destroy it when they heard a cheer go up from the siege lines. To the dismay of the French and Genoese reinforcements had arrived from the Spanish camp. Some of the landed troops had remained at the beach to ensure they were not cut off from the landing boats. As the Spanish arrived the attacking French and Genoese returned to these troops and the row boats to make good their escape. They had been moments away from over running the new gun positions and possibly taking Bourbon himself but the timely arrival of the Spanish had saved the landsknecht camp. 

Being alerted of the disturbance Spanish infantry from the Spanish camp finally arrive on the scene.

Bourbon was attempting to escape the onslaught and is now reinforced by Spanish rodeleros, arquebusiers and pike.

The landed French and Genoese have reached one of the gun bastions and are attempting to spike and destroy the Imperial guns...

...but as the Spanish reinforcements arrive the French and Genoese sound the retreat and begin to return to the fleet.

 These were two great games and it was a lot of fun to play through them. We did have a laugh over the way the French ambush totally fell apart in the first game. Stuart constantly failed activation rolls which meant the landsknecht could get more and more stuff over the river to safety, especially as Gourville and Chastelet had been brought onto the field at the same time and consequently attacked each other immediately! The second game was much closer as Bourbon's landsknecht were sent reeling back by the oncoming French and Genoese. The naval support rule was fun with shots flying into the Imperial forces every turn. It was only the timely arrival of all the Spanish in a single turn that saved Bourbon from defeat.


  1. Two outstandingly visually attractive games as always Oli - your figures and terrain are exquisite! Also, great to see a few ladies in the early shots - games are always enhanced by the presence of the fairer sex, in my opinion!

    1. I can merely echo Keith's assessment. Beautiful presentation with superb photos of your collections. Setting the scene for the scenarios was fascinating
      to read.

    2. Thank you gentlemen - Stuarts fantastic figures and terrain also contributed to make these games.

      The figures representing Antoinette de Bourbon and Renee, the duchess of Lorraine, were painted specially for the first scenario, annoyingly none of the other photos of them came out that well.

  2. Two great looking games which did indeed sound fun to play.
    Such lovely figures and terrain.

    1. Cheers Stuart, we did enjoy these game and it was great to have the city walls and coastline with the carrack in the second scenario.

  3. A fantastic visual treat, so tempted to do this period.
    beautiful figure and terian eye candy, invokes memories of a picture on the front cover of the "battle" magazine 1977 ish,
    which inspired me all those years ago. Your blog is always full of inspiration.


    1. Thank you Willz - funnily enough I saw a load of old Battle magazines in an antiques shop earlier this week!